Main Article Content

Abstract

The implementation of the Competency-Based Approach (CBA) has given teachers a hard time in several educational contexts worldwide, including Cameroon. In the domain of English language teaching, emphasis has been laid so far on the why aspect of the reform and on context-related challenges to its implementation, whereas very little has been said about how teachers in under-resourced contexts could implement it successfully in their classrooms. It is from this perspective that the present paper discusses five language teaching strategies that could facilitate the implementation of the CBA in the English classroom. It equally provides teachers with contextappropriate examples of how to integrate those teaching strategies into English lessons for improved teaching and learning outcomes. In so doing, this study fosters the idea that the CBA, though an imported educational innovation, has cultural relevance for Cameroonian teachers and learners.


 Résumé: L’implémentation de l’Approche par les Compétences (APC) par les enseignants de classe dans des contextes éducatifs différents à travers le monde n’a pas été chose aisée jusqu’à ce jour. En ce qui concerne l’enseignement de l’anglais, les chercheurs se sont focalisés jusqu’ici sur le pourquoi de la réforme, ainsi que sur les difficultés liées à sa mise en application effective au détriment de comment est-ce que les enseignants en service dans des zones aux ressources insuffisantes pourraient implémenter cette nouvelle approche dans leurs salles de classe. C’est dans la perspective de ce second point que le présent travail propose cinq stratégies d’enseignement des langues pouvant faciliter l’implémentation de l’APC dans le cadre de l’enseignement de l’anglais. Nous mettons également à la disposition des enseignants d’anglais quelques exemples contextualisés d’intégration de ces stratégies dans le but d’améliorer leurs capacités ainsi que le rendement des apprenants. De ce fait, ce travail a permis de développer l’idée selon laquelle l’APC aurait une portée culturelle dans notre contexte, bien qu’elle soit une innovation pédagogique importée

Keywords

Competency-based language teaching under-resourced context scaffolding collaborative learning authentic materials

Article Details

Author Biographies

Daniel A. Nkemleke, Ecole normale Superieure,Yaoundé

Department of English
Ecole normale supérieure, University of Yaoundé I

Patrick R. Belibi Enama

Department of English
Ecole normale supérieure, University of Yaoundé I

How to Cite
Daniel A. Nkemleke, & Patrick R. Belibi Enama. (2019). Strategies for enhancing learners’ language competence with special reference to Cameroon. Syllabus, 8(1), 115-136. Retrieved from http://www.ens.cm/syllabus/index.php/SYLABUS/article/view/22

References

  1. Auerbach, Elsa R. (1986). «Competency-based ESL: One step forward and two steps back? » TESOL Quarterly 20 (3): 411 – 415.
  2. Aufderhaar, Carolyn (2004) «Learner views of using authentic audio to aid pronunciation: “You can just grab some feelings”». TESOL Quarterly 38(4), 735-746
  3. Belibi, Enama P.R. (2018) «Competency-based English language teaching in Cameroon Francophone secondary schools: Peculiarities, challenges and solutions». In L.N. Afutendem, C. M. Nkwetisama and G. T. Fai (Eds.) Language and Literature Sciences in Contemporary Cameroon and the Commonwealth. 99-126.
  4. Bellour, Leila (2017) «The competency based approach and its discontents in the Algerian a secondary schools». Algerian Scientific Journal Platform 12 (2): 57 – 69.
  5. Berardo, Sacha A. (2006) «The use of authentic materials in the teaching of reading». The Reading Matrix 6 (2): 60 – 69. California Adult Literacy Professional Development Project (CALPRO) (2007) Professional development: Authentic materials. Retrieved 15/04/2019 from https://www.calproonline.org/documents/AuthenticMaterialsFinal.pdf
  6. Canning-Wilson, Christine (1999) «Using pictures in EFL and ESL classrooms». Paper presented at the Current Trends in English Language Testing conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, June. Cummins, Jim (1981). The role of primary language development in promoting educational success for language minority students. Schooling and language minority students: A theoretical framework. Los Angeles: Evaluation, Dissemination, and Assessment Center, California State University.
  7. Docking, Russel (1994) «Competency-based curricula – the big picture». Prospect 9 (2): 8 – 17.
  8. Foaleng, Michel (2014) « Reforme éducative et formation des enseignants au Cameroun ». Syllabus Review 5: 55-74.
  9. Frank, Jerrold (2013) «Raising cultural awareness in the English language classroom». English Teaching Forum 4: 2-11, 35.
  10. Griffith, W. I. and Hye-Yeon Lim (2014) «Introduction to competency-based language teaching». MEXTESOL Journal 38 (2): 1 – 9.
  11. Guo, Siao-cing (2012) «Using authentic materials for extensive reading to promote English fluency». English Language Teaching 5(8): 196-206.
  12. Hall, Jeffrey K. (1999) «The communication standards». In J.K. Phillips and R.M. Terry (Eds), Foreign language standards: Linking research, theories, and practices. ACTFL Foreign Language Education Series. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC/Contemporary Publishing Group
  13. Herrell, Adrienne L. and Michael Jordan (2012). 50 strategies for teaching English language learners. 4th edn. Boston, MA: Pearson.
  14. Hounhanou, Arlette V. (2017) «The competency-based approach: The concept of group in Benin EFL teaching». Studies in English Language Teaching 5 (2): 161 – 171.
  15. Jiang, Xiangying and William Grabe (2007) «Graphic organizers in reading instruction: Research findings and issues». Reading in a Foreign Language 19(1): 34-55.
  16. Komba, Sotco C. and Marcus Mwandanji (2015) «Reflections on the implementation of competence based curriculum in Tanzanian secondary schools». Journal of Education and Learning 4 (2): 73 – 80.
  17. Komba, Sotco C. and Marcus Mwandanji (2015) «Reflections on the implementation of competence based curriculum in Tanzanian secondary schools». Journal of Education and Learning 4 (2): 73 – 80.
  18. Komba, Sotco C. and Marcus Mwandanji (2015) «Reflections on the implementation of competence based curriculum in Tanzanian secondary schools». Journal of Education and Learning 4 (2): 73 – 80.
  19. Linse, Caroline (2005). «The children’s response: TPR and beyond». English Teaching Forum, 43(1), 8-11.
  20. Ludke, Karen M. (2009). Teaching foreign languages through songs. University of Edinburgh: Institute for Music in Human and Social Development.
  21. Makunja, Grace (2016) «Challenges facing teachers in implementing competency-based curriculum in Tanzania: The case of community secondary schools in Morogoro
  22. Municipality». International Journal of Education and Social Science 3(5): 30-37.
  23. Marcellino, Marcellinus (2005) «Competency-based language instruction in speaking classes: Its theory and implementation in Indonesian contexts». Indonesian Journal of English Language Teaching 1 (1): 33 – 44.
  24. Maroko, Geoffrey M. (2010) «The authentic materials approach in the teaching of functional writing in the classroom». In Reinelt, R. (Ed.). The New Decade and 2nd FL Teaching: The Initial Phase. Matsuyama, Japan: Rudolf Reinelt Research Laboratory, 71-78.
  25. Masduqi, Harits (2006) «The competency-based curriculum of English subject for senior high school in Indonesia: A critical evaluation». Jurnal Humanitas 1 (2): 56 – 68.
  26. Meskill, Carla (2009). Teaching and learning in real time: Media, technologies and language acquisition. 2nd edn. Houston, TX: Athelstan.
  27. Miller, Lindsay (2003). Developing listening skills with authentic materials. Retrieved 15/04/2019 from http://www.dl.ueb.vnu.edu.vn/bitstream/1247/9968/1/Developing%2
  28. 0Listening%20Skills%20with%20Authentic%20Materials(1).pdf
  29. Ministry of Secondary Education (2014). Pedagogic guide: English to Francophones.
  30. Nforbi, Emmanuel and Martin B. Siewoue (2015) «Perspectives for the competence-based approach with entry through real life situations in the teaching of English in Cameroon francophone secondary schools». Cameroon Journal of Language Education 1: 1– 18.
  31. Njwe, Amah E. N. (2016) «Language models and the teaching of English Language to secondary school students in Cameroon». World Journal of Education 6 (2): 50 – 67.
  32. http://dx.doi.org/10.5430/wje.v6n2p50
  33. Nkwetisama, Carlous M. (2012) «The competency-based approach to English language education and the walls between the classroom and society in Cameroon: Pulling down the walls». Theory and Practice in Language Studies 2(3): 516-523.
  34. Pellicer-Sanchez, Ana and Norbert Schmitt (2010) «Incidental vocabulary acquisition from an authentic novel. Do Things Fall Apart?» Reading in a Foreign Language 22(1), 31-55.
  35. Peregoy, Suzanne F. and Owen F. Boyle (2013). Reading, writing and learning in ESL: A resource book for teaching K-12 English learners. 6th ed. Boston, M.A.: Pearson
  36. Richards, Jack C. (2006). Communicative language teaching today. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  37. Richards, Jack C. and Ted S. Rodgers (2001). Approaches and methods in language teaching. USA: Cambridge University Press.
  38. Schaffer, Deborah L. and Carol H. Van Duzer (1984). Competency-based teacher education workshops in CBE/ESL. Richmond, VA: Virginia State Department of Education.
  39. Shin, Joan K. (2006). «Ten helpful ideas for teaching English to young learners». English Teaching Forum 2, 2-7, 13.
  40. Shrum, Judith L. and Elisabeth W. Glisan (2010) Teacher’s handbook: Contextualized language instruction. 4th ed. Boston, USA: Heinle, Cengage Learning.
  41. Storch, Neomy (1998) «A classroom-based study: Insights from a collaborative text reconstruction task». ELT Journal 52(4), 291-300.
  42. Storch, Neomy (2005) «Collaborative writing: Product, process and students’ reflections». Journal of Second Language Writing 14(3): 153-173.
  43. Thomas, Catherine (2014) «Meeting EFL learners halfway by using locally relevant authentic materials». English Teaching Forum 3: 14-23.
  44. Tomlinson, Brian (2012) «Materials development for language learning and teaching». Language Teaching 45 (2): 143 – 179.
  45. Vygotsky, Lev (1978) «Tool and symbol in child development». In C. Michael, V. Steiner, S. Scribner and E. Souberman (Eds.) (1978). Mind in Society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  46. Wong, Ruth M. H. (2008) «Competency-based English teaching and learning: Investigating pre- service teachers of Chinese learning experience». Porta Linguarum 9: 179 – 198.